TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 2/PART 1  THE FIRST COMPETITORS

THE ONSET OF COMMERCE

Figure 2.1: The Vitascope on Location

The Standardization of Stock and Gauge

Figure 2.2: “Edison-Gauge” Film Stock

A Proliferation of ’Scopes and ’Graphs

Figure 2.3: Competing Projectors

The Demise of Vitascope

Figure 2.4: Promoting the Vitascope
Figure 2.5: The Projecting Kinetoscope

The Birth of Biograph

Figure 2.6: The Advent of Biograph

The Mutoscope

Figure 2.7: The Mutoscope
Figure 2.8: A Peep Inside the Mutoscope

The 70mm Mutograph Camera

Figure 2.9: The Mutograph
Figure 2.10: The Biograph Location Wagon

“It Was in the Air”: Inventors in the Margin

The Chronophotographic Tradition

Figure 2.11: Marey’s Advances in Chronophotography
Figure 2.12: Demen˙’s Phonoscope
Figure 2.13: The Demen˙-Gaumont Chronophotographe

Independents with Claims to Fame: Le Prince and Friese-Greene

Figure 2.14: The Inventions of Louis Le Prince

Rethinking the “Heroic Interpretation of History”

The Patent and Progress

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

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