“Edison-Gauge” Film Stock

When W.K.L. Dickson used 1˝-inch-wide film in the vertical-feed kinetoscope that he completed in October 1892, he set the standard for the 35mm-gauge film that remains in use today. Film stock of different widths was tried by competing manufacturers, notably the Lathams, whose widescreen eidoloscope used 2-inch stock, and Biograph, whose system was designed for 70mm stock, but by 1897, the motion-picture industry was moving toward standardization in both product and practice. Before long, most technological innovations took place within the framework defined by Edison’s 35mm-width and four-perforation formats. The frames here are from an 1895 version of Edison’s Annabelle Butterfly Dance (see Figure 1.30).

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